Smelly Hangups for Mosquitoes
It works against mosquitoes. can it work against bedbugs?
A study in Nature this month reveals a promising new line of defense1 against disease carrying, bloodthirsty critters, namely the mosquito. This insect is majorly responsible for ongoing malaria epidemics overseas, by spreading the tiny parasites that cause the disease from host to host as the insect feeds on human Canada Goose Outlet blood. The new line of defense is based canada goose outlet toronto factory on smelly chemicals, or inhibitory odorants, that disrupt the mosquito’s ability to detect and travel towards human breath. Mosquitoes, as well as other blood feeding insects, are attracted towards the Canada Goose online carbon dioxide that we exhale with every breathe cycle (oxygen in, carbon dioxide out). The new insect repellent technology as presented in Nature takes advantage of this attraction, used by the mosquito to find a delicious host even at long range, in preventing these and other such insects from ever reaching their bloody meal.
Smelly inhibitions. Essentially, the mosquito’s carbon dioxide detection machinery, or it’s can be overwhelmed by certain chemical odorants. These inhibitory odorants over activate the neurons (nervous system excitable cells) behind the mosquito’s preventing the insect from then sensing the carbon dioxide coming out of a nearby human’s mouth. The solution is rather ingenious canada goose store we completely confuse the mosquito from recognizing our breath as a “come and eat!” signal our web page .
Of a pesky nature. Although the malaria carrier mosquito is a prime candidate for this new insect repellent technology, we might foresee its use against a critter of a peskier if canada goose black friday sale not necessarily disease carrying nature. Here in the United States, as well Canada Goose sale as abroad, the bedbug is making a steady comeback. The common bedbug, scientifically known as Cimex lectularius, like the mosquito feeds exclusively on animal blood, including that Canada Goose Jackets of humans. Indeed, the common bedbug is adept at finding and infesting human residences. Bedbugs, once kept at bay in developed countries with chemical repellents and other insect populations canada goose coats such as cockroaches and ants2, are resurging at Canada Goose Coats On Sale near canada goose clearance sale epidemic Canada Goose Parka proportions in large cities of the United States, Australia, and across Europe. canada goose outlet store locations The reappearance of bedbugs is attributed to factors including pesticide resistance and increased ease of international travel. While bedbugs have not to date been associated with the transfer of disease, risks of anemia in heavy infestation conditions, as well as the lack of sleep and the stress that the infestations cause are certainly risks to human health.
Sleep tight, don’t let the bed bugs bite! I never thought much about this bedtime lyric, but now the saying makes my skin crawl. Before I go on, let me state a disclaimer: bedbug infestations are longer limited to crowded, unclean, or urban locations’2 ; one could walk into a hotel room at the Four Seasons and walk out with one of the pesky hitchhikers. So now that no judgment will pass, I will let the world know that I once lived in an apartment that became infested with bedbugs. Fortunately, or perhaps unfortunately, for me, I am allergic to the little bloodsuckers. While my significant other showed no telltale signs of a problem, my skin broke out in large itchy welts. I dare say that the only way we got rid of the pests was by moving apartments, throwing away almost all of our furniture (perhaps rash, but I would not have it any other way), and washing every piece of fabric we owned. Of course, my significant other and I being the science nerds that we are, we have more books in our possession than any other material Canada Goose Online item put together. During the move, I took a hair dryer to the pages of each and every single 2018 canada goose outlet book, in order to make sure that no flat bodied bedbug caught a ride to our new apartment. We originally called Terminex to our rescue. However, they offered to do little more than steam clean our carpets for an exorbitant price https://www.canadagoosejacket-outlet.ca . Bug pesticide sprays, and even cheap Canada Goose the typically effective insect repellent DEET is useless against bedbugs. They hide in the tiniest of cracks, and can lie dormant buy canada goose jacket cheap for months while awaiting their next safe meal.
So, can the new inhibitory odorant technology, which disrupts breath seeking canadian goose jacket behavior in canada goose bloodthirsty critters like mosquitoes, be an effective defense against buy canada goose jacket bedbugs? While scientific studies of the common bedbug are limited3, several studies have revealed that this insect is attracted to chemical components of human breath, as is the mosquito. A 2011 study4 showed random, stop start host seeking movement for bedbugs in environments lacking human breath, whereas those bedbugs exposed to a human breath stimulus demonstrated long range host seeking behavior directed toward the stimulus (see image below). This study and others reveal the importance of human breath, and specifically carbon dioxide in that breath, as a long range cue to bedbugs that a blood meal is on the horizon. Bedbugs have been reported to travel distances of more than 6 meters to reach a host, purportedly under the influence of carbon dioxide containing breath stimuli5.
Scientific studies would be required to tease out how the carbon dioxide detection machinery, or the of the bedbug works, and which inhibitory odorants may potentially overwhelm the of the insect and thus prevent it from reaching its meal. However, the basic concept of disrupting breath seeking behavior in bloodthirsty insects would remain the same. While bedbug populations continue to grow and affect human health and general wellbeing, effective repellents or bug traps based upon odorants that inhibit breath detection would be a welcome solution to growing pesky epidemics. However, bedbugs are also attracted to heat and chemical odors in human skin. Although carbon dioxide has been shown to be the best bait for attracting bedbugs in field studies6, the effects of heat and other chemical odors would need to be overcome for an inhibitory odorant technology to work against hardy bedbugs. S. Turner et al. Ultra prolonged activation of CO2 sensing neurons disorients mosquitoes. Nature 474: 87 91 (2011)
2. Anderson, Leffler. Bedbug Infestations in the News: canada goose clearance A Picture of an Emerging Public Health Problem in the United States. Journal of Environmental Health 70,9: 24 canada goose deals 27 (2008)
3. J. Goddard, R. deShazo. Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) and Clinical Consequences of Their Bites. JAMA 301, 13: 1358 1366 canada goose coats on sale (2009)
4. J. Suchy, V. Lewis. Host Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius. Insects 2: 22 35 (2011) doi:10.3390/insects2010022 (Open Access)
5. R. Usinger. Monograph of Cimicidae (Hemiptera Heteroptera). The Thomas Say Foundation, Entomological Society of America. Baltimore, MD, USA, 1966; p. 585
Field studies also get more complicated for insects that feed on human hosts. I image the chemical ecology of rare butterflies may consist of simpler studies on the behavior of these insects in the presence/absence of particular chemical substances and butterfly social ‘cues’. However, the study of mosquito interactions and behaviors in response to host stimuli is a different ballgame. This is especially true in the case of bedbugs: obligatory human feeding in very particular situations makes it difficult to conduct field studies representative of whole bedbug populations. Also, genetic sequences alone do not immediately give answers to chemical ecology questions for insects like mosquitoes. canada goose replica The synergistic effects between various chemical attractants (for example CO2 in human breath paired with body odor and other breath chemicals) also complicate the study of chemical attractants/repellents and their effect at the molecular level.